For many foreigners, Finland, which, incidentally, the Finns themselves call Suomi, is the birthplace of Santa Claus, who lives on Mount Korvatunturi in Lapland. However, most tourists come to Finland not to get to know Santa Claus - they are primarily interested in Finnish nature, fishing, and first-class Finnish ski resorts.
Geography of Finland
Finland is located in Scandinavia in the north of Europe. Finland borders on Sweden in the west, Norway in the north, and Russia in the east. The Gulf of Finland separates Finland from Estonia. In the west and south, Finland is washed by the Baltic Sea.
86% of the territory of Finland is occupied by forest, in which pine, spruce and birch mainly grow. The Finnish landscape is mainly plains and hills with small mountains. The largest peaks in Finland are Mount Halti (1,328 m) and Mount Ridnitsohkka (1,316 m).
Finland is a country of “thousands of islands and lakes”. Indeed, this is a true statement, because in Finland there are 179,584 islands and 187,888 lakes. The largest lake in Finland is Saimaa.
Most of the Finnish islands are located in the southwest of the Turku archipelago, and further from the coast are the Aland Islands.
The capital of Finland is Helsinki, which is now home to about 600 thousand people. Helsinki was founded by the Swedes in 1550.
Finland has two official languages - Finnish and Swedish. The Sami language has a special status in the country.
Over 78% of Finns are Lutherans (Protestants) belonging to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. More than 1% of the population of Finland consider themselves Orthodox Christians.
Government of Finland
According to the 2000 constitution, Finland is a parliamentary republic whose head is the President, elected by direct universal suffrage for 6 years.
Legislative power belongs to the unicameral Parliament (Eduskunta), consisting of 200 deputies. Deputies of the Finnish Parliament are elected for 4 years.
The main political parties in Finland are the Social Democratic Party, the True Finns party, the Center party, the Union of the Left, and the Green Party.
Climate and weather
Finland is located at the same latitudes as Siberia and Greenland, however, in this Scandinavian country the climate is much milder due to air flows from the Atlantic. The climate in Finland is continental and marine in coastal areas. Winter in Finland is cold with a lot of precipitation (snow), and summers are warm.
The warmest month in Finland is July (average air temperature + 22C), and the coldest months - January and February (average air temperature -9C).
Average air temperature in Finland:
January - -8С
February - -7C
March - -5С
April - + 3C
May - + 11C
June - + 9C
July - + 14C
August - + 17C
September - + 15C
October - + 11C
November - 0C
December - -4С
Sea in Finland
In the west and south, Finland is washed by the Baltic Sea. The Gulf of Finland separates Finland from Estonia, and the Gulf of Bothnia separates Finland from Sweden. The temperature of the Baltic Sea is largely dependent on the warm Gulf Stream. The average water temperature of the Baltic Sea off the coast of Finland in winter is about 0С, and in summer + 15-17С.
Rivers and lakes
Finland is a country of “thousands of islands and lakes”. Finland has 179,584 islands and 187,888 lakes. The largest lake in Finland is Saimaa.
Many tourists come to Finland to go fishing. In Finnish rivers and lakes, grayling, rainbow trout, pike, perch, whitefish are found in large numbers. There are a lot of salmon in the rivers of Lapland. For fishing in Finland, you must obtain a special permit (for this you need to pay a certain amount of money).
But, of course, fish are also caught in Finland in the Baltic Sea (perch, sea trout, salmon, whitefish).